Nowadays, Electric cars are becoming popular and emerging as the best in the automobile industry. Also it is expected that by the year 2025, electric cars will capture the whole market and will make cars with internal combustion engine outdated.
Government of India is encouraging people to purchase electric vehicles in the country, as electric vehicles prove to be very effective because of increasing pollution. Most of the people know about electric vehicles, but do you know how it works?. Today we’re going to discuss the working process of Electric Car.
How Electric Car Works?
The electric cars operates on electric motor as opposed to the traditional fuel engine or ICE- internal combustion engine, which makes it eco-friendly and helps save natural resources. Electric cars function in a very similar manner to the remote-controlled toy car. Electric cars take the energy from the batteries in the form of electric energy, supplying it to the electric motors and converting it into mechanical energy.
The motor used in electric cars is AC Induction Motor along with Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF). The different parts that make the Electric Car moving are :
Electric Engine & Induction Motor
Electric Engine & Induction Motor use DC/AC type motors, of which AC motors are common to take in use. The motor provides power to rotate the wheels. There are mainly two parts: the stator and the rotor.
The inverter is used to convert the electric current in the form of Direct Current into Alternating Current. It plays a vital role in adjusting the input power and keeping the RMF speed below the rotor speed, generating electricity in the stator coils that can be stored back in the battery after conversion. The inverter works as the brain of the car.
Regenerative Braking is the most effective feature of an electric car because it saves the huge amount of kinetic energy which the car is producing in the form of electricity, without wasting it as heat. During the regenerative braking, the same induction motor acts as a generator. This, in turn, helps in effectively and accurately controlling the car using a single pedal.
Drivetrain sends power from the motor to the wheels with single-speed transmission via the gearbox. To alter the transmission to reverse gear is also very simple because it requires only a shift in the order of phases to achieve this.
Charging Electric cars need charging to function by plugging it into a charging point and taking electricity from the grid.
Batteries stores electricity required to run the Electric Car. They are just a collection of Lithium-ion cells similar to the ones we use in our daily lives. Glycol coolant minimise the thermal hotspots improving the battery pack life in return. The higher the kW of the battery, the higher the range of your travel. Electric cars use around 2000kW of energy every year.
Electric cars accelerate faster than the traditional ICE Cars making them a lighter drive. They are low on maintenance too.