With changes in technology vehicles are also undergoing a lot of transformation. Now in the latest trend Autonomous vehicles have come into the picture. Autonomous vehicles have a lot of potential in the present scenario which may be applicable for all sections of society. These types of vehicles are still in the nascent stage.
Definition of Autonomous Car
An autonomous car is a type of vehicle making sense of its surroundings and doing its work without people involvement. Human pedestals are not required to have a grip of this car nor a person is compelled to be available in it every other time. An autonomous car can get anywhere a normal car goes and does a lot of things that a capable human driver can.
Society of Automotive Engineers(SAE) makes inference of at least 6 levels of driving automation varying from level 0(fully manual) to level 5(fully autonomous). These levels have been implemented by the U.S. Department of Transportation.
Differences between Autonomous, Automated and Self-Driving
SAE specifies the word automated instead of autonomous for having autonomy has its range beyond other types of vehicles. Autonomous car is very much aware of itself and makes its decision as per its wish.
An automated car just follows orders and drives accordingly. The word self-driving is sometimes confused with the word autonomous. A self-driving car drives on its own but a person must attentively present and can have control in case of urgency These are limited to a specific geographical area compared to a level 5 autonomous car. It is seen that self-driving cars may be in level 3 or level 4.
Working of Autonomous Cars
Autonomous cars are based upon sensory type devices., complicated algorithms, processing devices. Autonomous cars make a database of outline of its immediate environment focused on many sensory devices present in vehicular apparatus. Sensors which focusses on direction are in strict vigil regarding the location of surrounding vehicle movement. CCTV type devices tend to make notice of traffic or make notice of other vehicles ,look for peoples movement.
For detecting parking of vehicular movements and to have some restrictions regarding it Ultrasonic sensors are also in use. Sometimes for identifying corners of roads, detecting specific lane and measuring distances in the vicinity of car surroundings for checking pulses of light having a jumping effect Lidar(Light detection and ranging) type devices are in use.
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Advanced softwares are used to take off for sending commands to actuator devices in car, drawing a path, also the input of sensor devices for the management of accelerators, steer control and braking systems Strict coding regulations, algorithms to avoid obstructions, identifiable objects and computational modeling backs up the software to adhere to traffic movement and management of obstacles.
Challenges of Autonomous cars
Level 5 cars are still in testing mode in some parts of world which are still not made intimated to the people. For achieving these things it may take time. Obstructions varies in different categories like technology, environment, logical and executive.
These obstructions are as follows:
This device is itself costly and it struggles between scope and intention. Suppose lots of autonomous cars are travelling on roads will there be any disturbance created due to LIDAR system. Is there any way to resolve this type of hindrances. If different types of radio frequencies are present can the frequency bandwidth is enough to sustain this.
If an autonomous car is driving in dense fog or heavy snow how will cameras and sensory devices make note of lane placement if these placements are itself covered by snow, viscous fluidness.
Traffic Rules and Regulations
Can autonomous cars have any problem in narrow slopes or hilly terrain. Will they be reprimanded any access reprimanded to any other lanes.
Regulations in state and Federal
Regulation is slowly changing from federal to state-wise validation for autonomous cars.
Man states to stop prevalence of unauthorised cars without people have made use of per-mile taxation.
Law enforcement authorities have written off a lot of bill receipts specifying that henceforth autonomous cars must have zero pollution certificates and a alarm button made available.
Prone to accidents
A Person will not have any control in case of emergency in vehicular movement. Who will be responsible in this scenario whether the manufacturer or the person in the back of the seat.
Human intelligence or Artificial intelligence Humans make use of their eye contact with fellow passengers or making note of other expressions or body movements of a driver.
Advantages of Autonomous Cars
- Reduction of traffic movement
- Making more parking spaces
- Fuel cost is reduced a lot.
- Reduction of Carbon Dioxide.
Everyone is excited to have a look at the first visuals of an autonomous car. People have high hope on these type of cars to be made available in the near future. A Lot of companies are in the process of making these cars affordable to different kinds of people globally.